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A CIA report , however, suggested that the interruption to broadcasts in the summer of was for political reasons as it coincided with "a period when negative commentary on the PRC in the Soviet media was substantially reduced".
Evidence of Soviet origin. Direction-fin ding indicated that the transmitter was located in the Soviet Far East, possibly the Vladivostok area.
End of broadcasts. It was inactive for much of , for a time in , and again in mid, after which it returned with a stronger signal. Its transmissions were confirmed by direction-finding to originate from the Soviet Far East, possibly the Khabarovsk area.
The Peace and Progress station was itself a "light-grey" example of Soviet "active measures". It was not a clandestine operation, as it routinely announced itself as "the voice of Soviet public opinion", but its broadcasts were more outspoken than those of the "official" Soviet external radio services.
Notes and sources. Other information from that report has been used in this article. My story below is, however, not fictional.
The CIA obtained a court order to redact more than a page worth of the six pages devoted to the subject, likely containing key operational details, before publication.
Detecting signs of resistance to the revolution and its Red Guards, particularly in southern China, the CIA sought to encourage such opposition through the distribution of printed matter by balloons launched from Taiwan.
The balloons carried bogus leaflets, pamphlets and newspapers purporting to be from counterrevolutionary groups within China. In fact, they were written by CIA propagandists.
The story is taken up by Victor Marchetti and John D. Encouraged by this success, the CIA looked for ways to expand its propaganda operation:. The left hand and the right hand.
The CIA's radio stations in Taiwan duly began their bogus broadcasts. But a problem arose. The part of the CIA the Directorate of Plans that was running the secret balloon drops and black radio transmissions to China did not inform the separate CIA division the Directorate of Intelligence that was, as its name suggests, collecting and analysing information about what was happening inside China.
Marchetti and Marks continue the story:. Marchetti and Marks noted:. What were the stations in question? The identity of the CIA's radio stations though not their origin was revealed as early as January by the respected Japanese newspaper Asahi Shimbun.
Such a start of broadcasts in December fits well with the narrative by Marchetti and Marks. Asahi Shimbun noted speculation by China watchers that the two stations originated from mainland China.
More than a year later the deception was continuing to be successful. In these early years the two stations made several short broadcasts just five to 10 minutes each day on shortwave starting in the late afternoon, Chinese time, and then at intervals throughout the evening.
The brevity of the programmes lent credibility to the idea that these were underground stations forced to keep their transmissions short to avoid detection by the Chinese authorities.
Between May and April , it would simply call itself Fighters. Handover to Taiwan? Sheila O'Brien of the University of Michigan says in a chapter of Clandestine Broadcasting , published in , that the CIA may have handed over its Chinese black broadcasting operations to Taiwan's own intelligence services at some time between and Magne, the Fighters and Liberation Army stations disappeared in June , reappeared briefly later that year and then began new phase of broadcasting, in conjunction with Sparks , in April An alternative theory.
However, Magne says they were under Soviet control, and had been so ever since the original launch in In the edition of How to Listen to the World , Magne said Radio Spark was operated by the KGB and staffed by Chinese exiles associated with the so-called "28 Bolsheviks" faction a group of Chinese who had studied in Moscow in the s and s , although he gave no source for that information.
Questions of provenance. It made transmissions of just 10 minutes in length, like the outlets of the Spark group, and like them favoured transmission times in the late afternoon and evening.
There was ample evidence that both transmitted from the USSR. Red Flag was notable for broadcasting on the mediumwave AM band rather than shortwave.
A variety of techniques besides aired statements is used to create the impression that there are rebel army units "on the run" within China itself.
The transmissions are brief and often erratic, with station names and schedules changing often enough to create a guerrilla flavour.
Similarly, whatever my doubts about Julian Hale's attribution of Spark and the Communist Party station to a Soviet origin, his book Radio Power is an excellent study of the world of international shortwave radio in its heyday.
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